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Seminario CEIGRAM sobre Gestión de nutrientes: hacia sistemas agroalimentarios más justos y sostenibles

Fecha: 22/05/2019

El próximo jueves 6 de junio a las 12:30 se llevará a cabo en el Aula Magna del edificio de Agrónomos (ETS de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas) el Seminario CEIGRAM “Gestión de nutrientes: hacia sistemas agroalimentarios más justos y sostenibles”, impartido por Gilles Billen y Josette Garnier, investigadores de UPMC y CNRS, respectivamente.

Gilles Billen (UMR Metis, Sorbonne Université/CNRS/UPMC) got his PhD at the University of Brussels in 1976, where he later headed for 15 years the Group of Aquatic Environmental Microbiology, devoted to the study of microbial processes in estuarine and marine areas, in connection with the cycles of carbon and nutrients. In 1997, he moved to Paris, and joined the CNRS, for taking, until 2007, the direction of the National Research Program on the Seine River (PIREN-Seine). He played a leading role in the development of biogeochemical modelling tools, aimed at testing scenarios for water resources management. He also participated in various international forums, such as the SCOPE-UNESCO Global NEWS program and the NinE (Nitrogen in Europe) ESF Network, and participated to the editorial team of the European Nitrogen Assessment. He is now conducting interdisciplinary research devoted the modelling of nutrient transfer between agricultural land and hydrosystems, at various scales from farm and landscape scale to regional or global scale. He is teaching a course on Territorial Biogeochemistry in the Master ‘Science of the Universe and the Environment” at University Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. He has published about 220 articles in ISI indexed journals.

Josette Garnier (UMR Metis, Sorbonne Université/CNRS) got her PhD at the University Pierre and Marie Curie of Paris in 1982. She was appointed by the National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS) in 1984, and she is presently Research Director at the CNRS with tenure in the field of Biogeochemistry at the Parisian Sorbonne University in France. Since 1997, she leads a research team of Metis lab and from 2007-2018 she was the head of an interdisciplinary research federation for the environment, gathering 18 laboratories. She actively participated to the development of a biogeochemical modelling approach of land-to-sea aquatic continua (Grafs-Riverstrahler) allowing to understand the cause of river and coastal zone eutrophication related to human activities in watersheds and to co-construct scenarios with policy makers and stakeholders for alternative management options of the water-agro-food systems at the scale of large watersheds.  She has been PI of several national and European projects. She supervised 25 Ph-D students and published about 190 articles in journals indexed in the ISI Science Citation index. She co-edited five special issues. She shared the Ruth Patrick award in 2016, with Gilles Billen.

Durante el seminario se hablará de la gestión de nutrientes a distintas escalas espaciales (y ecosistemas) y trayectorias históricas con el fin último de generar información científica de calidad que lleve a unos sistemas agroalimentarios más justos y sostenibles. El seminario se compondrá de dos partes, una primera a cargo de Gilles Billen bajo el título “Describing past and present agro-food systems and constructing possible future scenarios: the GRAFS approach” y la segunda, impartida por Josette Garnier con el tútulo “N-cascade from land to sea: the Western EU demo site of the INMS project”

Describing past and present agro-food systems and constructing possible future scenarios: the GRAFS approach (Gilles Billen et al.)

The GRAFS approach (Generic Representation of Agrofood systems) is primarily a biogeochemical accounting tool designed for providing a coherent description of N, P and C fluxes driven by cropland and grassland production, livestock breeding and human consumption at various geographical scales. It has been used for describing the overall biogeochemical functioning of the current French and Spanish agro-food systems at the regional scale, as well as for describing their long term historical trajectories, allowing addressing the issue of biogeochemical legacies such as the inherited P stocks or C sequestration in agricultural soils.  The approach is also suitable to translate into a biogeochemically coherent scheme the narrative of possible scenarios for future configuration of the agro-food system. Here we will illustrate this approach with the design of a scenario for France and Spain looking for more autonomy of farms with respect to chemical inputs and imported feed and to a more healthy human diet. It is based on the generalization of organic farming, the reconnection of crop and livestock farming and the reduction by half of the human consumption of animal proteins. This scenario is shown to be able to sustain the needs of France and Spain population while still exporting a significant amount of agricultural products to international markets.

N-cascade from land to sea: the Western EU demo site of the INMS project. (Josette Garnier et al.)

The W-EU river basins of the Atlantic façade represent a wide area for studying nitrogen inputs, transformations, emissions to groundwater and to the atmosphere and deliveries to the coastal zones. Typically this regional area receives too much nitrogen for intensive specialized cropping and livestock breeding. Combining experimental, budgeting and modelling approaches helps to define priority indicators of N management. Whereas GRAFS (Generic Representation of Agrofood systems) provides agronomic evaluations, e.g. in terms of surplus, autonomy of the farms, Riverstrahler, a model of  biogeochemical functioning of river networks allows to elaborate environmental indicators such as nitrate contaminations of inland water, coastal eutrophication, or N emission to the atmosphere. Chaining these tools (GRAFS-Riverstrahler) helps exploring scenarios for improving agricultural impacts on the environment. The results shows that a deep changes in agriculture production are necessary for reducing nitrogen losses, but must be accompanied by a change in   food consumption behavior. All these changes require an agri-food industry redesign, an important barrier which can be overcome with a strong political willing.

Si deseas asistir al seminario puedes apuntarte en el siguiente enlace.

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